Big shallow ponds filled with saline water, brines, pumped up from deep aquifers. The water evaporates from the sun’s heat, creating a concentrated lithium solution. The solution undergoes treatment and is most commonly turned into Lithium Carbonate. If desired, the Carbonate can be transformed into Lithium Hydroxide in a secondary step. Lithium brine projects include Albermarle Corp.’s Silver Peak Mine in Clayton Valley, Nevada which has been producing since the 1960’s.